So what is Hyaluronic Acid?
Hyaluronic Acid is the key molecule involved in skin moisture and is one of the major substances in the skin. Hyaluronic Acid is found throughout the entire body but 50% of the bodies Hyaluronic Acid is found in the skin. Your Collagen and Elastin are embedded in Hyaluronic Acid and it play’s a pivotal role in preventing and reversing aging. Hyaluronic Acid ability to hold and bind moisture is absolutely phenomenol. It can hold 1000 times it’s own weight in water. Hyaluronic acid plays a pivotal role in tissue regeneration (4).
The amount of Hyaluronic Acid your skin has directly affects how it looks.
Now you know what we mean when we tissue regeneration!
So What Happens When We Age?
Hyaluronic Acid disappears from the epidermis all together. The dermis still makes Hyaluronic acid, however it is difficult for the skin to use it. The end result is dehydration, atrophy and loss of elasticity in the skin.
Hyaluronic Acid needs to be replenished daily in the skin. It takes less than 24 hours for 50% of the Hyaluronic Acid your skin has produced to be destroyed.(2)
Why Does Size Matter?
Hyaluronic Acid ranges in molecular size from 20kDa up to 2,000kDa (2MD) in size. The potential benefits of Hyaluronic Acid are limited by it’s molecular size. Larger molecular weights do not penetrate the skin as efficiently (1).
One would think that the best size is the smallest size (20kDa), however whilst this penetrates the most it is not the best molecular size. Studies have been done comparing different molecular weights of Hyaluronic Acid. The lowest size of 20kDa was shown to set off an inflammatory response in the skin.
Inflammation is something we want to avoid as it results in our collagen and elastin being destroyed.
The perfect size was found to be 50kDa of Hyaluronic Acid. This ensured maximum penetration with no inflammatory response. This is the molecular size of the Hyaluronic Acid used in Roccoco’s products.
What Benefits Does Your Skin Get By Using Low-Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid?
- Decreased Risk of Scarring
- Increased Wound Healing
- Decreased Wrinkle Depth
- Increased Hydration
- Increased Penetration into the skin
- Increased Regulation of Genes responsible for healthy skin
- Increased Skin Barrier Defence from micro-organisms
- Increased Cellular Repair due to increased communication
- Increased penetration of active ingredients.
Okay so we have worked out that the best size for Hyaluronic Acid is 50kDa…..so how does this affect our skin on a cellular level?
Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid (50 kDa) penetrates skin more effectively than larger sized HA resulting in a gene regulatory activity that is much stronger. This smaller size not only is able to significantly reduce skin roughness but also provide strong anti-wrinkle properties (1).
Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid influences the expression of many genes including those contributing to keratinocyte differentiation and formation of intercellular tight junction complexes which are reported to be reduced in aged and photodamaged skin. Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid was shown to regulate 120 genes involved in skin vitality and youth. Higher weight Hyaluronic Acid only regulated 40 genes.
Hyaluronic Acid Reduces The Chances Of Scarring and Infection
High levels of Hyaluronic Acid are associated with no scarring after injury. Fetuses can undergo surgery and they will not scar. The reason being is because the fetus is surrounded by a sac rich in Hyaluronic Acid. The prolonged presence of Hyaluronic Acid ensures scar-free tissue repair (3).
Hyaluronic acid also protects the skin from infection by releasing B-defensins (peptides that inhibit bacterial growth). Topical application of low molecular weight has been shown to increase the amount of B-defensis released. B-defenses are strongly anti-microbial having broad spectrum against both gram negative and gram positive organisms, as well as the yeast Candida Albicans. (6)
Hyaluronic Acids biological activities in skin are also due to its interaction with various binding proteins (hyaladherins). Due to an influence on signaling pathways, Hyaluronic Acid is involved in the wound-healing process.
Hyaluronic Acid dressings in the medical field have been shown to accelerate healing. Hyaluronic Acid hydrogel films accelerate the healing of full-thickness wounds by providing an environment that is conducive to tissue repair. (3)
Hyaluronic Acid Protects Your Collagen
Hyaluronic Acid protects your collagen and elastin from being destroyed. Hyaluronic Acid stimulates the production of a substance called “Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases” (TIMP-1), which prevent your collagen being destroyed by inflammation.(3)
Hyaluronic Acid Enhances The Penetration Of Other Ingredients
The skin acts as a protective barrier and as such it is particularly effective at preventing the permeation of hydrophilic molecules. Hyaluronic Acid has been shown to localize delivery of drug to the epidermis when applied topically. (4) It is known that the degree of hydration of the stratum corneum influences skin permeability. Increased hydration opens the compact substance of the stratum corneum by loosening the dense, closely packed cells thus increasing the permeability.
Hyaluronic Acid Is An Antioxidant
Hyaluronic Acid acts as a scavenger of free radicals and is a strong antioxidant. Hyaluronic Acid forms a protective meshwork around cells restricting movement of free radicals (5).
Hyaluronic Acid is highly hydrating to the skin, however low molecular Hyaluronic Acid from a skin rejuvenation is superior. If you want to increase the results you are getting then look for products that disclose the molecular weight of their Hyaluronic Acid.
1.Farwick et al “Fifty-kDa Hyaluronic Acid Upregulates Some Epidermal Genes without Changing TNF- a Expression in Reconstituted Epidermis” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2011;24:210–217
2. Papakonstantinou et al “Hyaluronic acid A key molecule in skin aging” Dermato-Endocrinology 4:3, 253–258; July–December 2012
3. Necas et al “Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan): a review” Veterinarni Medicina, 53, 2008 (8): 397–411.
4. Brown et al “Hyaluronic acid: a unique topical vehicle for the localized delivery of drugs to the skin” Journal of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (2005) 19 , 308–318
5. Weindl et al “Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment and Prevention of Skin Diseases: Molecular Biological, Pharmaceutical and Clinical Aspects” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:207–213
6. Gariboldi et al “Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Increases the Self Defence of Skin Epithelium by Induction of b-Defensin 2 via TLR2 and TLR4″ J Immunol 2008; 181:2103-2110.